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The skin ageing

Skin ageing is the result of environmental factors and the passage of time. As we get older, the skin suffers small but inevitable changes which together cause loss of density, flexibility, radiance and tone. Their effects and results are different for each layer of the skin:


The skin ageing

  • Reduced cell renewal.
  • Micro-circulation slows down.
  • Distribution of melanin becomes uneven.
  • Free radicals and other toxins start to accumulate.
  • The epidermis becomes thinner.

Result: The skin becomes rough, wrinkled, and loses its luminosity


  • Decreased collagen synthesis.
  • Elastin and collagen fibres begin to break down.
  • Hydrationislost.
Result: The skin loses its firmness and elasticity.

Factors that accelerate skin ageing

There are several factors that accelerate skin ageing, which we describe below. Some of these, such as solar radiation, have a major influence on the premature ageing of the skin.

  • Genetic factors
  • Hormonal changes
  • Solar radiation
  • Environmental pollution
  • Atmospheric agents
  • Stress
Result: Premature skin ageing characterised by dryness, wrinkles and skin blemishes.

Dehydration is due to the alteration of the action of hyaluronic acid and decreased sebaceous gland production.

Hyaluronic acid is found in the dermis and is capable of absorbing large quantities of water, storing it to hydrate our skin. It also feeds the fibroblasts, thereby stimulating collagen and elastin synthesis.

The sebaceous glands produce the sebum responsible for the hydro-lypid balance necessary for our skin.

Effect: The corneous layer loses its ability to retain water. Result:
  • The skin is rough and wrinkled.
  • Loss of elasticity.
  • Loss of tone.
Photo ageing

Photo ageing caused by UV radiation which damages the cellular structure and collagen and elastin fibres of the dermis, forming an excess of free radicals.

Effect: Uneven distribution of melanin. Result: Appearance of dark spots.
Less oxygenation and nutrition of the skin

Due to the ageing of the blood capillaries, the micro-circulation slows down, causing less oxygenation and nutrition of the skin. In addition, the adhesion of cells to the basement membrane decreases (dermal-epidermal junction).

Effect:The dermal-epidermal junction flattens, resulting in a loss of compaction.


  • Loss of tone.
  • Bags and dark circles appear under the eyes.
Loss of elasticity

Loss of elasticity caused by the relaxation of the skin due to alteration of the elastic collagen fibres.

Fibroblast activity decreases, reducing collagen and elastin synthesis. Repetitive muscle movements occur, free radicals form and begin to accumulate.


  • Alteration of collagen and elastin fibres.
  • Loss of skin density.


  • Formation of wrinkles.
  • Formation of expressionlines.
  • Flacidity.
  • Bags and dark circles appear under the eyes.
Reduced rate of cellular regeneration

Reduced rate of cellular regeneration in the germinative layer of the epidermis.

Less keratinocytes are produced in the basal layer of the epidermis.

Effect: The thickness of the epidermis decreases.


  • Formation of wrinkles and expression lines.
  • Loss of luminosity.

Wrinkles are the most visible sign of skin ageing. There are two types of wrinkles:

Expression wrinkles formed by repeated facial movements. They appear on the forehead, at the corners of the eyes, glabellar lines, chin, upper lip, and next to the nose.

Deep wrinkles that appear over time. These are the result of various internal factors such as the alteration of collagen and elastin fibres.

Double chin

As we get older our metabolism tends to change (everything becomes slower), a slight accumulation of fat appears and elasticity is lost, and therefore, due to gravity, skin ageing is much more noticeable.

Neck wrinkles:
Calcium activates the synthesis of a PKC protein in the granular layer, which is distributed to the basal layer of the epidermis and stimulates the regeneration of keratinocytes to become keratin and form part of the skin barrier of the corneous layer.
When we are young, calcium is found throughout the granular layer. As we get older, it is distributed around the entire epidermis and therefore the PKC protein can not be synthesised and keratinocytes can not be regenerated. Hence, this area needs to be stimulated much more.

Formation of a double chin:

  • Increase of adipose tissue.
  • Collagen and elastin fibres are altered.

Formation of wrinkles on the neck.

  • Alteration of calcium gradient.
  • Changes in protein synthesis processes.
Bags and dark circles under the eyes

The skin around the eyes is very thin and is formed by a delicate layer of subcutaneous fatty tissue, so special attention needs to be paid to this area.

  • Dark circles: These are dark blemishes that form under the lower eyelids, usually as a result of tiredness or illness.
  • Bags under the eyes: Bags under the eyes are the result of an accumulation of fluid, either water or fat, caused by poor drainage, fragile capillaries, an inadequate supply of oxygen to the cells, and loss of elasticity.